System Name
B2Z list of NLG systems
System Builders Mann,Matthiessen, Hovy,Kasper, Bateman,Whitney,Albano, Poulton, O'Donnell
Development Dates 1981-1992
Languages English
URL (if available)
who's who


Penman was the major text generation project established by William C. Mann in the early 1980s. Within this project were developed resources such as the very large Nigel grammar of English and several approaches to text planning that came to define some of the standard approaches in the field.


Eduard H. Hovy, Julia Lavid, Elisabeth Maier, Vibhu Mittal, and Cécile Paris.
Employing Knowledge Resources in a New Text Planner Architecture.
In Robert Dale, Eduard Hovy, Dietmar Rösner, and Olivero Stock, editors, Aspects of automated natural language generation, pages 57--72. Springer, Berlin, 1992.
(Proceedings of the 6th International Workshop on Natural Language Generation, Trento, Italy, April 1992).

Eduard H. Hovy.
Automated discourse generation using discourse relations.
Artificial Intelligence, 63(1-2):341--385, 1993.

Robert T. Kasper.
A flexible interface for linking applications to PENMAN's sentence generator.
In Lynette Hirschman, editor, Proceedings of the DARPA Workshop on Speech and Natural Language, San Mateo, CA, 1989. Morgan Kaufmann.
Available from ACL Anthology H89-1022.

William C. Mann and Christian M. I. M. Matthiessen.
NIGEL: A Systemic Grammar for Text Generation.
Technical Report ISI/RR-85-105, Information Sciences Institute, February 1983.
4676 Admiralty Way, Marina del Rey, California 90292-6695.

William C. Mann and Christian M. I. M. Matthiessen.
Demonstration of the Nigel Text Generation Computer Program.
In James D. Benson and William S. Greaves, editors, Systemic Perspectives on Discourse, Volume 1, pages 50--83. Ablex, Norwood, New Jersey, 1985.

Christian M.I.M. Matthiessen.
Semantics for a systemic grammar: the chooser and inquiry framework.
In Michael J. Cummings, William S. Greaves, and James D. Benson, editors, Linguistics in a Systemic Perspective. Benjamins, Amsterdam, 1988.

Christian M. I. M. Matthiessen.
Semantic interfaces in text generation.
In 13th. International Conference on Computational Linguistics (COLING-90), pages 322--329, Helsinki, Finland, 1990.
Volume 2. Main reference

Christian M. I. M. Matthiessen and John A. Bateman.
Text generation and systemic-functional linguistics: experiences from English and Japanese.
Frances Pinter Publishers and St. Martin's Press, London and New York, 1991.

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