System Name
B2Z list of NLG systems
System Builders Gupta, Walker, Romano
Development Dates 2007-2008
Languages English
URL (if available)
who's who


The system contains a generalised mechanism for generating utterances and dialogues, drawing on a sociolinguistics theory of politeness. It combines a Spoken Language Generator (using full NLG techniques) with an AI planner to model linguistic politeness in collaborative task oriented dialogue with the ultimate goal of providing a stimulating environment and a fun way for learning politeness in English as a Second Language (ESL).

Dialogues are demonstrated within Embodied Conversational Agents (ECA) capable of dialogues with human ESL learners, interacting with them using spoken language to practice politeness in role play situations.


Main reference

S. Gupta, M.A. Walker, and D.M. Romano.
How rude are you?: Evaluating politeness and affect in interaction.
In Affective Computing and Intelligent Interaction (ACII-2007), number 4738 in Lecture Notes in Computer Science, pages 203--217. Springer, Berlin/Heidelberg, 2007.
Proceedings of conference held at Calouste Gulbenkian Foundation, Lisbon, Portugal, 12th September 2007.

Swati Gupta, Marilyn Walker, and Daniela Romano.
Generating politeness in task based interaction: An evaluation of the effect of linguistic form and culture.
In Proceedings of the Eleventh European Workshop on Natural Language Generation (ENLG 07), Saarbrücken, Germany, June 2007. DFKI GmbH.
Document D-07-01.

S. Gupta, M.A. Walker, and D.M. Romano.
Using a shared representation to generate action and social language for a virtual dialogue environment.
In Proceedings of the AAAI Spring Symposium on Emotion, Personality and Social Behavior, Stanford University, Palo Alto, CA, 2008. Association for the Advancement of Artificial Intelligence.

Information last updated: 14.06.2008 (
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