John Bateman, Robert Kasper, Johanna Moore and Richard Whitney (1989) A general organization of knowledge for natural language processing: The Penman Upper Model. Technical Report. Information Sciences Institute. Marina del Rey, California.

  author = {John A. Bateman and Robert T. Kasper and Johanna D. Moore and Richard 
  A. Whitney},
  title = {A general organization of Knowledge for natural language processing: 
  the {PENMAN} Upper Model},
  institution = {USC/Information Sciences Institute},
  year = {1990},
  address = {Marina del Rey, California},
  topics = {area:sfl; area:compling, area:ontology},
  author = {Renate Henschel and John A. Bateman},
  title = {The merged upper model: a linguistic ontology for {G}erman and {English}},
  booktitle = {Proceedings of {COLING} '94},
  year = {1994},
  address = {Kyoto, Japan},
  month = aug,

  topics = {area:ontology},