System Name
B2Z list of NLG systems
System Builders Bateman,Matthiessen,Zeng
Development Dates 1993-ongoing
Languages English, German, French, Dutch, Japanese, Czech, Russian, Bulgarian, Spanish, Greek, Chinese, independent
URL (if available)
who's who

Builds on: Penman


The KPML system is an ongoing development drawing on over a decade of experience in large-scale grammar development work for natural language generation (NLG). It is currently maintained at the University of Bremen, Faculty of Linguistics and Literature. The system is a graphically-based development environment for the construction, maintenance, and use of large-scale grammars written with the framework of Systemic-Functional Linguistics.

KPML offers a robust, mature platform for large-scale grammar engineering that is particularly oriented to multilingual grammar development and generation.Grammars have been developed using KPML for a variety of languages including English, German, Dutch, Chinese, Spanish, Russian, Bulgarian, and Czech. Many of these grammars are freely available for further research and development work within the NLG community. The English grammar is the very large Nigel grammar under development since the early 1980s in the Penman project at USC/ISI, Los Angeles.

A variety of configurations of KPML are available, suitable for use both by absolute beginners in a teaching environment and by large-scale grammar work. The variations are summarised on the main KPML page. KPML is written in ANSI Common Lisp, with the graphical interface in the Common Lisp Interface Manager (CLIM). The source code may be compiled and installed in full using commercial Common Lisp products supporting Common Lisp and CLIM under Unix and Windows. There are also standalone executable images available for Windows systems that may be downloaded and used without compilation and without requiring an additional Lisp software licence.


John A. Bateman, Christian M. I. M. Matthiessen, Keizo Nanri, and Licheng Zeng.
The re-use of linguistic resources across languages in multilingual generation components.
In Proceedings of the 1991 International Joint Conference on Artificial Intelligence, Sydney, Australia, volume 2, pages 966--971, San Francisco, CA, 1991. Morgan Kaufmann Publishers.

John A. Bateman, Christian M. I. M Matthiessen, and Licheng Zeng.
Multilingual natural language generation for multilingual software: a functional linguistic approach.
Applied Artificial Intelligence, 13(6):607--639, September 1999. Main reference

John A. Bateman.
Enabling technology for multilingual natural language generation: the KPML development environment.
Natural Language Engineering, 3(1):15--55, 1997.

John A. Bateman and Serge Sharoff.
Multilingual grammars and multilingual lexicons for multilingual text generation.
In Multilinguality in the lexicon II, ECAI'98 Workshop 13, pages 1--8, Brighton, U.K., August 1998. European Conference on Artificial Intelligence.

Information last updated: 03.06.2000 (
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